whatsarahsaid3-31
Monolinguals often assume that this kind of switching happens because speakers are not competent in one of their languages - a sort of deficit hypothesis - or because a concept just can’t be expressed in one of the languages - a sort of lexical gap explanation. Analysis of recorded multilingual speech doesn’t support these ideas, however. Speakers who code-switch the most often are usually those who are the most fluent in both of their languages, and there are linguistic rules about where in a sentence a switch can happen.

Van Herk, What Is Sociolinguistics, chapter 11. (via transliterations)

The Wikipedia article on code-switching has a nice classification of the types and linguistic rules involved: 

  • Intersentential switching occurs outside the sentence or the clause level (i.e. at sentence or clause boundaries). It is sometimes called "extrasentential" switching. In Assyrian-English switching one could say, “Ani wideili. What happened?” (“Those, I did them. What happened?”)
  • Intra-sentential switching occurs within a sentence or a clause. In Spanish-English switching one could say, “La onda is to fight y jambar." ("The in-thing is to fight and steal.”)
  • Tag-switching is the switching of either a tag phrase or a word, or both, from one language to another, (common in intra-sentential switches). In Spanish-English switching one could say, “Él es de México y así los criaron a ellos, you know.” (“He’s from Mexico, and they raise them like that, you know.”)
  • Intra-word switching occurs within a word itself, such as at a morpheme boundary. In Shona-English switching one could say, “But ma-day-s a-no a-ya ha-ndi-si ku-mu-on-a. (“But thesedays I don’t see him much.”) Here the English plural morpheme -s appears alongside the Shona prefix ma-, which also marks plurality.


(via kantala13)

billmurraay
amandapandalu

thechamberofsecrets:

earlier today i was thinking about the thousands of girls who post videos on youtube reviewing makeup and talking about their fav products and making tutorials and how no girl has ever once done it just to impress men like literally that whole community exists just for girls because it’s something that so many of us enjoy and yet men still think that we wear makeup for them

thebicker

micdotcom:

1,200 aboriginal Canadian women have gone missing over the past 30 years. Hashtag asks #AmINext?

On Aug. 17, Winnipeg police pulled the body of 15-year-old Tina Fontaine out of the Red River near Alexander Docks.

The scope of the tragedy prompted Holly Jarret of Hamilton, Ont. — cousin to Loretta Saunders, an indigenous woman who was murdered in February at age 26 — to launch the #AmINext hashtag earlier this month.

So, what’s being done about it? | Follow micdotcom

probably the best addition to something ive said

For somebody who doesn’t actually lead a very interesting life I sure do have some interesting stories. The summary of that one is probably wilder than the actual occurrence which went something like:

Me: [walks into bathroom of gross bar because I’m DD]

Me: [spots person kneeling on knees, face close to floor]

Other Person: Oh! Didn’t see you come in.

Me: Are you okay?

Other Person: Yeah. Mind if I…? [gestures to floor]

Me: Hey, yeah. Have a blast with whatever it is.

Other Person: [resumes putting face to floor]

Me: [goes to step around them, realizes what is happening, considers leaving, but then realizes the urge to pee is just too strong]

So that’s the story of how I had a small conversation with and then peed beside somebody who was licking up coke off a public bathroom’s floor.

whatsarahsaid3-31

whatsarahsaid3-31:

heyheyjuhkay:

Do you ever think about all of the really nice drunk girls you’ve met in bathrooms and wonder how they are doing? I miss you all

funny story three years ago this nice drunk girl id never see before and i bonded in line for the bathroom and she gave me her number and i never…

I once met somebody licking coke up off a bathroom floor so there’s that too.